Yes, you can file a chapter 13 after a chapter 7. This is jokingly called a chapter “20” 13+7… Maybe it isn’t the funniest joke, but it shows that this is such a common occurrence that attorneys and judges joke about it. Under a chapter bankruptcy 13, you may be able to cram down the value of your vehicle to only pay what it is worth and not what is actually owed.
However, if you are in the situation named above as having a chapter 13 that converted to a chapter 7, and if you make too much money you may actually have to pay the interest owed on your vehicle under the original contract as if the chapter 13 was never originally filed. Talk to a bankruptcy attorney to go over your case-specific questions and see if a “chapter 20 bankruptcy” is right for you.